If I define an alert, can that trigger an API call to an external resource located within our AWS infrastructure?
Interesting question...I want to follow this. For an alert, I'd bet you'd have to somehow work in an email created in zapier...set that up to get the alert...then fire something off in zapier...but good question.
Do you happen to know if Zapier can extract the data inside the email sent to its service to then propogate that data via an API to the final destination?
That I don't know. From my experience it has been similar to "new inbound email received" and then you set some action. I don't think you can get inside the email to pull data out of it.
Have you reviewed the writeback connectors? https://knowledge.domo.com/Connect/Connecting_to_Data_with_Connectors/Configuring_Each_Connector/Writeback_Connectors