Is there a way to filter on the dataset itself and export that out rather than creating a filter on the card and export that out?
You could create another dataset in the Magic ETL that has your filter applied and then go to that dataset in the data center and export out that data by clicking on the export option in the top right. Other than that, I typically just create a pivot table or mega table card on my overview page where no one else can see my cards to do quick filtering and exporting as I am working through a dataset.
Ask your CSM about the new data view beta. It will create the experience @MarkSnodgrass without requiring a separate ETL.